(1985). Similar to any advancement in personal or professional settings, various factors contribute to the expansion of these impactful changes. Development and Evaluation of Assessment .... : Development and Evaluation of Assessments for Counseling Professionals, Considering the Characteristics Defining Validity Within the, Rationale and Organization of Special Issue Content. This evaluation can be conducted through integrating the 5 sources of validity. Prominent among these are vocational guidance, psycho-metrics, and psychotherapy. Having a response process, such as social desirability, anxiety, or inattentiveness, can alter what is being measured—or the construct of the assessment; it can therefore be understood how earlier versions of evidence based on response process were subsumed under the construct validity in the standards. By contrast, validation refers to the many processes and practices implemented by researchers to accumulate evidence supporting or dispelling suppositions about the usefulness of assessment scores. Readers will find three articles supporting the development of psychological and educational assessments through developing content-oriented evidence (Lambie, Blount, & Mullen, 2017/this issue) and use of cognitive interviewing (Peterson, Peterson, & Powell, 2017/this issue), as well as issues associated with translations and cross-cultural validation (Lenz, Gómez Soler, Dell'Aquilla, & Uribe, 2017/this issue). The counseling field, though relatively new, has a rich history. To be lacking in content validity would mean that an assessment does not measure what it claims to measure. This special issue of MECD has been prepared as a support to educators, clinicians, and scholars whose professional activities could be supported through clear, plainly spoken depictions of strategies that support inferences about the degree of validity associated with a particular assessment. Vocational guidance in the early 1900s was a movement to assist young people in their vocational adjustments through education and occupational information. He also works as a consultant in the development of systems and processes to be used at Wood. Validity, reliability, and fairness in assessment practices might be the most integral, yet misinterpreted concepts within the fields of educational and psychological assessment. If Wood follows the recent generic structure of HRM function, Trayvon is likely to be part of a A) center of expertise. 0000100772 00000 n The development of psychometric methods beginning with the Binet Intelligence Scale… The first and most obvious purpose of employee appraisals is to measure employees’ performance. The extent to which items on the assessment interrelate and correspond to the framework of the presumed construct provide evidence on internal structure. 0000049948 00000 n More accurately, some scores are transferable to some settings and populations, but careful consideration of important characteristics is an ethical imperative given the high-stakes nature of assessments within clinical practice. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. Although counselors have the opportunity to limit their scope of practice with respect to modalities, theories, and types of clients, a counselor cannot function without an understanding of the processes and procedures of assessment in counseling. A. Analyze various strategies for selecting, administering, and interpreting assessment and evaluation instruments and techniques in counseling; II.K.7.g I.f,j,k 1-3 B. Complementary quantitative strategies, such as Lawshe's content validity ratio (Ayre & Scally, 2014; Lawshe, 1975), have been developed to estimate the consensus among content experts and facilitate developing a corpus of items that has a high probability of representing the intended constructs. Each of these aspects is connected to an assessment's internal structure, and affects overall validity because it affects how we assess and interpret scores on an assessment, which in turn impact our students and clients. 0000004656 00000 n B�EYàL%%e�P�H0��@ǁ �u�1��`�a@&c ) Ideally, when performance appraisals are used for developmental purposes, organizations should tie individual development to strategic organizational goals. Trauma is as old as humanity itself. 861.507 Counseling Techniques (lab course) (3 credit hours) 861.511 Career/Life Development and Planning (3 credit hours) 861.609 Diagnosis in Counseling (3 credit hours) 861.612 Appraisal and Testing for Counselors (online course) (3 credit hours) 863.501 Introduction to Clinical Mental Health Counseling (online course) (3 credit hours) There has been a long need for counseling in helping individuals with transitions and other difficulties in their lives. 3099067 For example, when creating a scale to test suicidal behaviors, the intended use of this assessment might be to identify risk level of engaging in or attempting suicide. It is our belief that the discussion of processes and features representing sources of validity evidence is best situated within the context of some very important characteristics. Appraisals are central both to human resource management and performance management. Yet, taking the time to explore sources of validity evidence—whether developing a measure or looking to use an existing measure—can result in the appropriate use of assessments and interpretation of scores. Counseling@Northwestern University has created an interactive timeline showing the development of counseling as a profession. 0000117936 00000 n This is because not all types of validity evidence are required for every assessment to be determined as useful and such a checklist approach would undermine the value of professional expertise. Therefore, it is important to implement a systematic approach such as that proposed by Kelly, O'Malley, Kallen, and Ford (2005) when considering validation evidence that recognizes the synergistic interplay between findings that lead to a unitary representation. Today professional counseling encompasses within its practice clinicians who still focus on the avoidance of problems and the promotion of growth, but the profession is much more than that. In its simplest form, content validity refers to the degree to which the content of an assessment is consistent with and represents the intended construct. 0000069714 00000 n This includes whether test takers might be guessing on items on the assessment, misunderstanding a word or concept, or whether something else (e.g., anxiety, boredom, social desirability) could be influencing individuals while responding to items on the assessment. (2014). Assessing for evidence related to response process is most frequently explored through cognitive and in-depth interviews, but has sometimes been done through observations and eye tracking, as well as response time (Padilla & Benitez, 2014). 0000043344 00000 n Each source of validity usually cannot be explored or answered within one study, but this is more of a long-term process that ultimately never ends (AERA, APA, & NCME, 2014). 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